El Alfabeto Español Letter How to say letter Sound it makes

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1 El Índice 2 El Alfabeto Español 3 Pronunciation rules, los números 4 Nouns, articles 5 Punctuation, capitalization, adjectives 6 Adverbs, subject pronouns 7 Direct object pronouns, indirect object pronouns 8 Regular present tense verb conjugations 9 Gustar: likes and dislikes 10 Querer notes 11 Possession using de 12 Posessive adjectives 13 Tener notes, conjugations, and phrases 14 Stem-changing verbs: how to conjugate 15 Stem-changing verbs: types 16 Yo-go verbs 17 Yo-go verbs 18 Ir to go 19 Ser vs. estar 20 Ser vs. estar el diccionario

2 El Alfabeto Español Letter How to say letter Sound it makes A ah ah B beh bv C seh k, s D theh th E eh eh F ef-eh f G heh g, h H ah-cheh silent I ee ee J ho-tah h K kah k L el-eh l M em-meh m N en-neh n Ñ en-yeh ny O o o P peh p Q coo k R er-eh soft r (not trilled) S es-seh s T the t U oo oo V beh bv W do-bleh-beh w X eh-kees x, h Y ee-gree-eh-ga y Z she-tah s The b and v are pronounced the same. The q is always followed by a u, but together they make a k sound. C followed by a u makes the same sound as the qu in the English word queen. C and g both can have hard and soft pronunciations based on what letter follows them. Ll is pronounced as a y. Ch is pronounced like the ch in cheese. Rr is trilled when pronounced. 2

3 Stressed Syllables and accent marks: Pronunciation 1. If a word ends in a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or the consonants n or s, stress the next to last syllable in the word. o GAto MAnos 2. If a word ends in a consonant other than n and s, stress the last syllable in the word. o nariz reloj hospital 3. If the stress does not follow rules 1 or 2, an accent mark is written over the syllable that should be stressed. o lápiz Panamá Verónica Los números 0 cero 10 diez 20 veinte 30 treinta 1 uno 11 once 21 veintiuno 31 treinta y uno 2 dos 12 doce 22 veintidós 32 treinta y dos 3 tres 13 trece 23 veintitrés 33 treinta y tres 4 cuatro 14 catorce 24 veinticuatro 34 treinta y cuatro 5 cinco 15 quince 25 veinticinco 35 treinta y cinco 6 seis 16 dieciséis 26 veintiséis 36 treinta y seis 7 siete 17 diecisiete 27 veintisiete 37 treinta y siete 8 ocho 18 dieciocho 28 veintiocho 38 treinta y ocho 9 nueve 19 diecinueve 29 veintinueve 39 treinta y nueve 40 cuarenta 80 ochenta + y, más 50 cincuenta 90 noventa - menos 60 sesenta 100 cien X por 70 setenta dividido por Only and can be combined into one word. In uno, veintiuno, treinta y uno, etc. the uno is changed to un or una before a masculine or feminine noun respectively. Ej: noventa y un libros (91 books) ; veintiuna plumas (21 pens) 3

4 Basic Spanish Grammar Nouns A noun refers to a person, place or thing. In Spanish, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. The gender of the noun usually must be memorized but there are some common word endings: Masculine: -o Feminine: -a, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, -umbre Change a singular noun to plural in the following ways: 1. Add s to nouns ending with a vowel Ej: el gato the cat los gatos the cats 2. Add es to nouns ending in a consonant (excluding z). Ej: el árbol the tree los árboles the trees 3. If a noun ends in z, change to c and add es. Ej: la luz the light las luces the lights Definite article: Articles A definite article translates to the in English. These agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Article Gender/number Ejemplo Translation el masculine singular el libro the book la feminine singular la puerta the door los masculine plural los libros the books las feminine plural las puertas the doors NOTE: If the preposition a (to) and de (of/from) comes before el, you use these contractions: a + el = al de + el = del Indefinite An indefinite article translates to a, an, and some in English. article: un masculine singular un libro a book una feminine singular una puerta a door unos masculine plural unos libros some books unas feminine plural unas puertas some doors 4

5 Punctuation In Spanish, rules for punctuation are similar to those for the English language. The following are some exceptions: 1. An upside down question mark is used at the beginning of questions in addition to a regular one at the end of questions. 2. An upside down exclamation mark is used before exclamatory sentences in addition to a regular one at the end of exclamatory statements. 3. Quotations marks are used to separate a speaker s actual words from the rest of the text. Periods, commas and other marks go outside the quotation marks. Capitalization In Spanish, rules for capitalization are similar to those for the English language. The following are some exceptions: 1. Days of the week, months of the year, languages, nationalities, and religions are not capitalized. 2. Titles (Mister, Miss) are not capitalized, but abbreviations of titles are. Ex: señor Sr. mister Mr. Adjectives Adjectives are words which describe or limit a noun. In Spanish, an adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies. (See plural rules under nouns.) Ex: el gato negro the black cat las casas rojas the red houses Adjectives ending in e or a consonant do not change. Ex: la mesa verde the green table un muchacho popular the popular boy For adjectives ending in or, -án, -ón, or ín, add a to make it feminine. Ex: el niño pequeñín the tiny boy la niña pequeñína the tiny girl 5

6 Adverbs Adverbs describe how an action is done. In English, adverbs generally end in ly, which is the equivalent of mente in Spanish. The adverb is usually formed by adding mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. Adjective Masculine Feminine Adverb slow lento lenta lentamente quick rápido rápida rápidamente Note: If the adjective carries an accent, it will retain the accent when changed to an adverb. Adverbs can also be made by combining con with a masculine singular noun. Ex: con cuidado with care Comparative Adverbs Comparative adverbs compare two or more people or things. The following are common comparative adverbs: más..que more..than menos..que less..than major que better than peor que worse than Pronouns Subject pronouns A pronoun is a word which takes the place of a noun. Subject pronouns generally appear before the verb and represent people or things. yo I Nosotros/as we you (familiar) usted you (formal) ustedes you all él he ellos they (masculine) ella she ellas they (feminine) Note: Tú is the singular familiar/informal form used to address friends, family, children or animals. Usted (abbreviated as Ud.) is the singular formal version used to address adults, strangers or professionals. When in doubt, use the formal rather than the informal. Ustedes (you plural) can be formal or informal. 6

7 Direct object pronouns A direct object is a noun that receives the action of the verb. Direct object pronouns replace the direct object in a sentence. me me nos us te you (fam. sing.) los them/you lo la him/it/you her/it/you Ex: Yo veo el libro. I see the book. Yo lo veo. I see it. Ella me ve. She sees me. Ellos nos ven. They see us. las (masc./mixed group) them/you (fem. group) Indirect object pronouns An indirect object pronoun refers to a person who indirectly receives the action of the verb. The words to and for appear or are implied in the sentence (i.e. I read the book to John; I read (to) John the book). me to/for me nos to/for us te to/for you (fam. sing.) to/for them/you les le to/for him/her/it/you (masc./fem. group) Ex: Yo doy los libros a Juan. I give the books to Juan. Yo le doy los libros. I give the books to him. Direct and indirect object pronoun placement 1. In a single verb sentence, the pronoun goes before the verb. Ex: Ana bebe la leche. Ana drinks the milk. Ana la bebe. Ana drinks it. 2. In a sentence with an infinitive, the pronoun may either go before the conjugated verb or be attached to the infinitive. Ex: Lo quiero leer. I want to read it. Quiero leerlo. I want to read it. 3. In a sentence with both a direct and an indirect pronoun, the indirect pronoun must come first. Ex: El chico me da el dinero. The boy gives me the money. El chico me lo da. The boy gives it to me. 7

8 Verb conjugations What is an infinitive? An infinitive is a form of a verb before it is. In English, these verbs have the word before them. Ex: walk caminar In Spanish, infinitives have an at the end of the verb. Ex: eat come Verbs must be before using in a sentence. When a verb is conjugated, it should match the subject of the sentence. To conjugate a verb, there are three steps: 1. Find the subject of the sentence (the person/thing doing the action) 2. Drop the ending (This will be -ar, -er, or ir if it is an infinitive.) 3. Add the new ending (depending on the subject) Regular present tense verb endings These endings will be used for all regular verbs in the present tense. yo él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes -ar -er -ir Ex: Marco a su casa. (correr) Marco runs to his house. Mis amigos y yo en la cafeteria. (comer) My friends and I eat in the cafeteria. Ella siempre a la escuela. (caminar) She always walks to school. 8

9 Gustar to like The verb gustar is used when discussing likes and dislikes. Parte 1 - Quién? Parte 2 - Qué? Infinitive A mí no me nadar (to swim) A ti no te estudiar (to study) dormir (to sleep) A él no Singular noun le A ella no el fútbol A usted no la playa A nosotros no la canción nos A nosotras no tu dibujo A ellos no los Plural noun libros A ellas no les los perros A ustedes no las clases Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Part 1 functions independently from part 2. The form of the verb gustar depends if the noun (the thing that is liked) is singular (gusta) or plural (gustan). With an infinitive verb (when someone likes to do something), you always use gusta. Ex: A mí me gustan los libros. I like the books. Step 1 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 A ellas no les gusta cocinar. They don t like to cook. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 ***Note: Step 1 is not always needed in a sentence. It is used for emphasis. Step 2 is only used when someone does NOT like something. 9

10 querer to want Completa esta table con las versiones correctas de querer. yo él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes conjugation: queremos translation: you (familiar) want Completa las frases con la versión correcta de querer : 1. Mi amigo, Carlos, un carro rápido. 2. Roberta y Juana comer la pizza con mucho queso. 3. Tú una novia? 4. Mis hermanos ser jugadores profesionales de baloncesto en la NBA. 5. Pedro y yo nunca ir a la clase de ciencias. Escribe dos frases completes con querer :

11 Cómo expresar posesión con la preposición de In English, we express possession (ownership) by adding to the end of words. However, in Spanish, we cannot do that. In Spanish, we express possession by using the preposition. For example, to say Mónica s house, we say la casa de Mónica, which literally translates to the house of Mónica. Formula to use: The preposition de means or la amiga de Juan (Juan s friend) la casa de mis padres (my parents house) los animals de Becca (Becca s animals) However, if you want to say my book or your book, you cannot say el de yo or el de. After the word de.. the word YO changes to. the word TÚ changes to. El amigo de mί = El amigo de tí = 11

12 Possessive adjectives: short form A possessive adjective is an adjective that describes something belongs (ownership). For example, MY pen HIS truck OUR house Like all adjectives in Spanish, possessive adjectives must match the noun that they describe in and. Possessive adjectives articles (el, la, los, las, un, unos ). DO NOT use them both in front of the same word. Formula: + subject pronoun singular possessive adjective plural possessive adjective subject pronoun singular possessive adjective plural possessive adjective yo (my) Nosotros/as (ours) (yours familiar) él, ella, usted (his, hers, yours formal) ellos/as, ustedes (theirs fem./masc, yours plural) Notice that the él, ella, ud. (usted) and the ellos, ellas, uds. (ustedes) possessive adjectives are the. For this reason, you must interpret their meaning based on when you hear or read them. Ejemplos: mi amigo nuestra casa sus libros or su teléfono or 12

13 tener to have Completa esta table con las versiones correctas de tener. yo él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes conjugation: tenemos translation: you (familiar) have Remember: tener + que + infinitive is used when someone has to do something. Ej: Yo tengo que caminar a la clase. = I have to walk to class. Underline the infinitive in English and Spanish in the example above. Frases con tener: Tener is used in many common phrases and also used to discuss age. (A person has their age, instead of is their age as in English) phrase literal translation understood meaning tener hambre to have hunger to be hungry tener sed to have thirst to be thirsty tener miedo to have fear to be afraid tener calor to have heat to be hot tener frío to have cold to be cold tener razón to have reason to be right tener suerte to have luck to be lucky tener ganas de to feel like 1. Yo diecisiete años. 2. Tomás dos hermanos. 3. Tú una mascota? 4. Mis amigos y yo miedo de los serpientes. 5. Ana, Lucia, y Diana hambre. 13

14 Stem-changing verbs Stem changing verbs are a type of verb that require an extra step to conjugate. Step 1: Find the stem of the verb by dropping er, -ir, or ar o Ej: querer tener decir encontrar Step 2: Change the stem to the new stem. o Ej: quer quier ten tien decdic encontr encuentr Step 3: Conjugate as a regular verb (matching the ending to the subject of the sentence) o Ej: quiero I want Step 4: Do not change the stem with nosotros o Ej: queremos we want Ejemplos: 1. La chica un perro. (querer) Traduce: 2. Emilia y Eva dos hermanos. (tener) Traduce: 3. Yo no bailar bien. (poder) Traduce: 4. La clase «Buenos días!» a la profesora.(decir) Traduce: 5. (encontrar) Traduce: 14

15 Types of stem-changing verbs There are four types of stem-changing verbs. They are categorized based upon how their stems change. These are the ONLY stem-changing patterns. e ie o ue e i Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English to want to have (yo-go verb) to be able to (can) to find to say (yo-go verb) to order; to ask for to prefer to eat lunch to serve to understand to think to close to begin; to start to begin to start to feel; to regret to fall asleep (reflexive) to remember to return (from somewhere) to return (a thing) to go to bed (reflexive) to get dressed (reflexive) to defend to lose u ue to refer; to tell to lie to wake up (reflexive) Spanish English to play (a game or sport) 15

16 Yo Go Verbs A Yo Go verb is a verb that uses the ending of instead of o in the form. The go is ONLY used in the yo form. Yo Go verbs include: tener (e ie), venir (e ie), decir (e i), poner, salir, oír, hacer, valer, traer* caer* Note: the verbs traer and caer add an I in the yo form to become yo traigo and yo caigo but how do the other forms of the yo go verbs conjugate? Just like normal! yo tener to have venir to come/arrive decir to say él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes 16

17 yo poner to put/place salir to leave oír to hear él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes yo él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes hacer to do/make valer to be worth/cost yo él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, ustedes traer to bring caer to fall 17

18 The verb ir In Spanish, the verb ir means. This should not be confused with ir ending verbs. Ir is an infinitive verb which is also irregular. yo él, ella, usted nosotros/as ellos/as, usted ir to go Translation ir + a + location When using ir and a specific location, you must place an a between the conjugated verb and the location o Ej: Los estudiantes van a la cafetería a las ocho de la mañana. o The students go to the cafeteria at 8 in the morning. Don t forget to make the contraction al if the word following is masculine. o Ej: Los estudiantes van al gimnasio. The students go to the gym. Future tense: ir + a + infinitive You can make the future tense by using the formula ir + a + infinitive Note that ir will be conjugated to be used in a sentence (voy, vas, etc.) Ej: Voy a estudiar mucho para el examen. I am going to study a lot for the test. 1. Mis abuelos a Florida cada verano. 2. Para mi clase, mis amigos y yo al gimnasio. 3. Los estudiantes a estudiar para la clase de ciencias. 18

19 Ser vs. Estar In English, we only have one word used when saying which is conjugated as am, is and are in English. In Spanish, there are two words to express that: ser and estar. These words are used in different situations. (See page 19). yo él, ella, usted ellos/as, ustedes nosotros/as ser translation yo él, ella, usted ellos/as, ustedes nosotros/as estar translation *For estar conjugations, if there is an o in the word, there is no accent. Think O no! 19

20 Ser Ser vs. Estar Which do you use? Used to describe unchanging characteristics of a person, place or thing D escription/personality: Mi abuela es loca. (My grandmother is crazy.) Juan es cómico. (Juan is funny.) O ccupation: Él es un doctor. (He is a doctor.) La mujer es una maestra. (The woman is a teacher.) C haracteristic (physical): Emma es baja. (Emma is short.) Pedro es alto. (Pedro is tall.) T ime & date: Son las once y media. (It s 11:30.) Hoy es el dos de abril. (Today is April 2nd.) O rigin & nationality: Anita es de México. (Anita is from Mexico.) El chico es cubano. (The boy is Cuban.) R elationship/posession: Felipe es mi padre. (Felipe is my dad.) La mochila roja es de Ana. (The red backpack is Ana s.) 20 Estar Used to describe changing characteristics of a person, place, or thing P osition: Mi padre está sentado. (My dad is sitting.) L ocation: Nosotros estamos en la cafetería. (We are in the cafeteria.) La escuela está en Mandeville. (The school is in Mandeville.) A ction: Ellos están cantando. (They are singing.) C ondition: La banana está verde. (The banana is green/unripe.) E motion/mood: La chica está cansada. (The girl is tired.) Los estudiantes están abburidos. (The students are bored.) La madre está enojada. (The mom is mad.)